Wednesday, February 10, 2016

10 Dog Breeds Nutrition Facts That Will Surprise You

1. St. Bernards are beautiful dogs with a history of being the heroes of the dog world, but they are also very large dogs whose natural preference is to live in cold places. Needless to say, their nutrition requirements are demanding.

St. Bernards need to eat a lot, and they need to eat often. Because they are cold-blooded dogs, they tend to eat less when the weather is warm. A St. Bernard should be given plenty of water and about 6 ½ cups of food per day; this is the best way to ensure that they are properly fed.

They often need high amounts of protein, and St. Bernards that are not fed enough in quantity or quality will have issues with their bones. Dry kibble is a good option for these dogs, and they will eat a lot of it to keep up with their need for food. Pet care for St. Bernards requires patience and commitment.

2. Miniature Schnauzers are on the smaller side of the breed spectrum and as might be expected require less food than the average medium-sized dog. What is important for a Miniature Schnauzer’s diet is food that is low in fat and quality proteins. They tend to have liver problems when fed an excess of proteins, so a diet that is rich in minerals and vitamins is also important.


  3. A pit bull is a unique kind of dog with unique nutritional needs. One important part of the pit bull’s diet is meat. They will eat a number of other ingredients, but animal protein is a key component of a pit bull’s healthy diet. While feeding pit bulls a small amount of grains and plant food is acceptable, pit bulls—as is the case with many dogs—need a diet full of animal-rich foods.


  4. Huskies may be a medium-sized breed, but feeding them in the same way as any other medium-sized dog is a no-no. Huskies require small amounts of high quality and high nutrient foods. Overfeeding them is detrimental to their health.

The most important ingredient to a husky’s diet is protein. Protein and fat should make up the majority of its diet with a small amount of fruits and vegetables included. Huskies tend to only eat around two times a day, which is a noticeable difference from larger dogs who can eat up to six cups of food a day. Feeding a husky high quality foods is the best way to keep this beautiful creature happy and healthy.


  5. Labradors are fun-loving dogs that require a lot of love and attention, but give it back as well. Labs are choosy about what they eat, so it can be difficult to feed them the nutritional value they require. Like any other dog, Labradors will need a diet rich in protein. They also need a diet that includes vitamins and calcium, but in moderation, as too much causes stress on their digestive system.


  6. Dobermans are large dogs with large appetites. They enjoy a diet high in protein, but beef-based products should not be fed to these dogs as it is hard on their digestive systems. Lamb or chicken-based products are usually the suggested protein, and grains are not good for them. While Dobermans should be fed a hearty amount, overfeeding them should be avoided at all costs.

  7. A French bulldog can eat meat, although some bulldogs may have meat allergies to watch out for. Salmon and other types of fish may be an ideal substitute. Just like many people, some French bulldogs have allergies to gluten, and oats may be a better option for a healthy bulldog diet.

“Frenchies” can eat a well-prepared raw diet but are sensitive to many foods that may cause flatulence. These dogs require a well-planned diet that is balanced and nutritional.

  8. An English Mastiff is one of the largest dogs around and as such needs a diet that is rich in proteins such as beef, with high fiber foods included. Oats and barley are a good option for English Mastiffs, and feeding them potatoes can also help to keep them healthy and strong.

Many owners of large dogs tend to overfeed them, but this can be detrimental to the English Mastiff’s health. The right amount of proteins and fibers will ensure that the dog grows to its proper height and weight without needing overly excessive amounts of food.

  9. Great Danes are big dogs, but they often have sensitive stomachs and are easily susceptible to allergies. Taking care to avoid feeding them certain foods is important to their health and longevity. A diet with a 20-22% protein level with 15-19% fat level is suggested for Great Danes. Food that is high in poultry is good for Great Danes, but by-product based foods are not suggested for these large dogs.

Great Danes surprisingly will also enjoy eating yoghurt, cottage cheese, and carrots. High calcium foods and vitamins are an important part of a Great Dane’s diet. Great Danes are susceptible to heart problems, and providing them with a heart-healthy diet is key to their healthy and well-rounded nutrition.


  10. Golden Retrievers love food and require a healthy amount to keep them happy. While they should eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, their main source of food should be animal-based protein. Dogs are carnivores, and the Golden Retriever is no exception. Because Golden Retrievers love to eat they are not very choosy in what they eat, so it is easy to provide them with a rich nutritional diet with plenty of variety in meats.

Most dogs and especially Golden Retrievers should not eat foods such as onions, raisins, and nuts. Some of these foods contain toxins that can be harmful to the digestive system of a Golden Retriever; others are hard to digest and can cause discomfort and pain. Salty foods, chocolate, and avocado are other potentially dangerous foods for Golden Retrievers and other dogs.
Veterinarians play an essential part in the lives of animal lovers. The thought of having to take our companions, whatever species they are, to visit a vet is upsetting, but there is nobody better able to care for creatures great and small.

Whenever the pets we care for become ill or injured, a trip to our local vet is a priority, regardless of how difficult we may personally find it. Depending on the species of animal needing treatment, a specialist veterinarian may well be needed to provide medical aid.

While most pet-owners gravitate towards dogs and cats, US citizens welcome a huge variety of animals into their homes: reptiles, birds, and more. Small-animal vets are generally based in clinics or hospitals, whereas large-animal specialists travel to see patients at their home (whether this is a domestic setting, a farm, or a zoo).

Veterinary specialists focus on a particular clinical field, dedicated to treat specific species. In order to pursue a specialism, vets must have completed a one-year internship, or two years of practicing in a clinic, before being able to start a residency. Once qualified in a specialism, a vet can be consulted when a patient's condition demands a level of care exceeding that of a veterinarian working in a clinic or hospital.

There is a wide range of veterinary specialist areas, some of which you might not be aware of.

What Type of Vet Specialists are there?

The many veterinarian specialties cover numerous types of medicine, species, and treatment areas. These include obvious areas like cardiology, dentistry, dermatology, and chiropractic.

However, some of those you may not know about are:

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Equine vets specialize in the care of horses, and are responsible for diagnosing conditions, performing operations, and undertaking any other medical treatments as needed.

Equine veterinarians work with ranchers, horse breeders, competitive horse-owners, and others to keep these magnificent animals in the best of health. This may include performing internal and external examinations, with the former demanding the use of endoscopes.

An equine endoscope is used to investigate the stomach, airways, esophagus, and bladder. Like endoscopes used in human-specific procedures, an equine endoscope provides the vet operating the tool with a clear image of the horse's internal system on a video screen or monitor.

Using vet scopes, an equine specialist can identify any potential or existing problems in a horse's airways or esophagus, diagnosing the source of medical complaints affecting their health.

Preventive Medicine

Vets specializing in preventive medicine play a key part in the health of animals, focusing on the prevention of diseases and conditions. They will also help to promote good health in pets, giving carers the information they need to reduce the risk of their animals becoming ill.

Just as in human patients, trying to maintain a good level of health through proper nutrition and habits is very important.


Veterinarians specializing in toxicology focus on poisons affecting animals, particularly hazards to animals within their food and environment. This may relate to animals in domestic and wild settings, or both.

Veterinary toxicologists research these hazards in-depth, but not all dangers affect all species. As a result, vets may specialize in how toxins affect specific species or types, such as pets or working animals. Toxins cause damage in different ways, such as attacking the central nervous system, causing heart difficulties, and more.


This branch of veterinary medicine is based around the act of reproduction. The physiology of both genders' reproductive systems and associated areas (gynecology, andrology) is incredibly important to this, with vets required to develop an exceptional level of knowledge on animals' breeding habits.


As the name suggests, this involves studying parasites affecting animals, particularly relationships between the parasites themselves and the hosts. Specialists in these areas will look into parasites affecting domestic and wild animals, covering the parasites' origins and developmental process.

Veterinarians specializing in parasitology use various research methods to identify, diagnose, and treat parasites. Information gathered in this process will also allow them to further prevent cases in the future, and in situations where a parasite may be transmitted from an animal to a human, public health will be considered just as important.

Regardless of the specialist area a veterinarian chooses to focus on, the dedication and focus demanded for this career is considerable. As a nation of animal-lovers, we place a great deal of faith in vets, and are willing to pay high fees to ensure the secure treatment of our pets. By allowing veterinarians to undertake additional training into diverse areas of treatment, the industry makes sure that professionals are always on hand to care for animals with a huge variety of medical issues.

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Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Below is a list of Rufous-colored birds, where the color Rufous (reddish-brown) is the more prominent color of its plumage.

1. Rufous Hummingbird

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Described as one of the feistiest hummingbirds in North America, the Rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) is a fairly small hummingbird with short wings, and a slender, straight, black bill. Also known for their extraordinary flight skills, the species measures about 8–9 cm (3.2–3.7 in) long. Adult males are easily recognized by its bright Rufous (reddish-brown) overall with white breast and ear patch, vivid iridescent-red throat, and green shoulders. Females are green above, white belly and Rufous flanks.

2. Glossy Ibis

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The Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) is a medium-sized wading bird averaging around 59.4 cm (23.4 in) with an 80–105 cm (31–41 in) wingspan. It is a striking bird with iridescent bronze and Rufous (red-brown overall) plumage, and shiny bottle-green wings and tail. It has a strongly down-curved bill and long black legs. The glossy ibis is widely distributed throughout most warm temperate and tropical regions of the world.

3. Ruddy Quail-Dove

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The Ruddy quail-dove (Geotrygon montana) is a medium-sized dove widespread in the tropical Americas. The species measures around 19–28 cm in length. The bird is distinguished by having Rufous overall with rust colored back, pale buff throat, streak under eye, and belly. Black tipped red bill, red legs and feet.

4. Rufous Motmot

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The Rufous motmot (Baryphthengus martii) is a large near-passerine bird measuring 46 cm (18 in) long and weighs 195 g (6.9 oz). It is the second largest and arguably the most spectacular of the motmots. The species is a resident breeder in rain forests from northeastern Honduras south to western Ecuador, northeastern Bolivia, and southwestern Brazil. It is mainly cinnamon-rufous, with a black face mask and iridescent patches of turquoise blue on its head. It has a greenish-blue underparts, green wings and flanks, and dark blue tail and flight feathers.

5. Chestnut Munia

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The Chestnut munia (Lonchura atricapilla), also known as Chestnut Muni, is a small Rufous (red-brown) finch found in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. It is easily identified by the black head, Rufous (red-brown) body, light grey beak, and blue-gray eyering. This passerine bird averages 11–12 cm in length. Both sexes look alike - but only the male sings. Before 1995, it was the national bird of the Philippines, where it is known as mayang pula ("red maya").

6. Nankeen Night Heron

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The Nankeen night heron (Nycticorax caledonicus), also known as Rufous Night-Heron, is a medium, stocky heron found in Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Melanesia, and throughout much of Australia. The striking bird measures around 55–65 cm and weighs 550–1014 g. It is a thick-necked heron, with a stooped appearance. It has reddish-brown upperparts, white-buff underparts, a black crown and bill, as well as yellow legs and feet.

7. Ferruginous Hawk

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The Ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) is the largest of the North American Buteos. This species is a large, broad-winged hawk with white head, streaked, Rufous-red shoulders and back; pale rust, gray, or white tail and feathered legs. Adults measure from 51 to 69 cm (20 to 27 in) and weigh around 977–2074 g (34.5–73.2 oz).

8. Orchard Oriole

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The Orchard oriole (Icterus spurius) is the smallest North American orioles. The species averages 16 cm (6.3 in) long and weighs 20 g (0.71 oz). Adult males are black above and rich reddish-chestnut below. It has a black rounded head and throat; short, squared-off tail, and a straight, sharply pointed bill.

9. Philippine Eagle-Owl

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The Philippine eagle-owl (Bubo philippensis) is a vulnerable owl species endemic to the Philippines. It is one of the largest owls in the world, with an impressive wingspan of around 120 centimetres. Full grown averages 40–50 cm (16–20 in) in length. The plumage is predominantly Rufous coloured, Rufous-buff facial disc, tawny-Rufous crown, small ear-tufts and huge yellow eyes.

10. Rufous Woodpecker

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The Rufous woodpecker, (Micropternus brachyurus) is a reddish brown woodpecker found in South Asia. It is a medium-sized bird with a short crest, slightly curved black bill and reddish eye. Adults average 21–25 cm (8.3–9.8 in) long and weigh between 55–114 g (1.9–4.0 oz).

Friday, October 30, 2015

Racehorses are amazing creatures: strong, fast, in incredible shape. Considering the exertion they undergo on a regular basis, keeping them in the best possible fitness and condition is vital: this means they need to be given comprehensive examinations time and again.

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The most common areas of concern for racehorses are gastric and respiratory issues which will affect their ability to perform as they're trained to. Before a horse is purchased, or judged in a contest, vets or judges will want to assess their condition. How do they do this?

Vet Scopes – Exploring the Equine Respiratory System

For a long time, upper respiratory problems in horses were assessed through physical examinations involving treadmill-based and resting endoscopy. However, today, vets can get a clearer, more in-depth idea to form a diagnosis thanks to videoendoscopy – more specifically, dynamic videoendoscopy (DVE).

Videoendoscopy has been a fairly standard procedure in people for a long time now, used as a non-invasive alternative to exploratory surgery which can be costly, time-consuming, and traumatic for the body. When doctors need to diagnose conditions or locate the source of pain or unusual activity, they can use videoscopes to assess the patient's insides without needing to cut into the body itself.

As the health and fitness of racehorses needs to be checked on a regular basis, videoendoscopy is now a common method of checking racehorses' respiratory tract. DVE allows vets to identify and diagnose dynamic obstructions: previous endoscoping techniques had only allowed vets to assess respiratory problems while the horse was resting, using a treadmill (which doesn't offer identical circumstances as being out on a track, with a rider), or immediately after exercise. This means certain conditions or issues would remain undetected.

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Fitting an Equine Scope – Is it as Difficult as you May Think?

DVE should be preceded by a thorough exploration of the horse's history, to help ascertain how many races it has run, how many times it may have experienced injuries, its age, its diet – all the pertinent information. The videoendoscopy should be performed with the horse's usual rider, too, for the most accurate results.

This procedure should be given to a horse with no sedation for optimal accuracy, as some sedatives can affect the functions of the respiratory system. As the equine scope is inserted through the nostril, some horses may become agitated during the process, and knowing how a horse will react beforehand can be very difficult – so preparation is key.

To prevent the horse flinching and causing disruption to the procedure, using a neck or nose twitch is generally recommended, with sedation used only if the horse is demonstrating extreme resistance towards insertion. Using videoendoscopy during exercise offers the vet a chance to listen to the respiratory functions, and to hear any potential abnormalities.

To get the most accurate results, the rider should exercise the horse to its usual degree – any less will not allow the vet to get an accurate reading and form a proper diagnosis (if needed). Racehorses undergoing DVE should perform at their usual racing distance and speed, perhaps with another horse acting as a lead to mimic the usual situation. The rider may be fitted with a GPS device to give the vet more data to better analyze the overall performance.

A standard DVE system features:

A flexible insertion tube (with a diameter of 9.8mm), including an LED-fitted head, which eliminates the requirement for a bulky separate light

A robust permanent virtual circuit box, carrying the vital electronics

A bridle system to fix the tube, fitting over the standard tack

A lavage system with a pump, bottle, and necessary tubing

A remote receiver video display, relaying real-time footage

Looking to the Future of Equine Scopes

The technology used in DVE is certainly impressive, allowing the vet to control the scope's position remotely, using either a keyboard or a joystick to maneuver it as needed; in some cases, the vet may transmit the footage from the tube to other professionals (even on a global level), using basic computer equipment.

However, as technology evolves, so too will the endoscoping process. ProScope Systems, a company selling refurbished endoscopes, has created the Magic View: this is an innovative portable equine scope designed to revolutionize the entire procedure.

As a horse prepared for purchase, for contest, or undergoing a check-up will likely experience the scoping procedure multiple times, this can cause them considerable discomfort, especially if the tube causes abrasions during insertion and removal. The Magic View (patent pending) is a non-invasive alternative which provides a clear view of the horse's insides without the pain or complications.

The Magic View equine scope uses an auto iris camera and a 3.5 inch display to image the horse's respiratory system. The Upper Airway Exercise Scope provides a wireless view, with a 11.1 millimeter insertion tube, and the Lower Airway scope has a 10.5 millimeter diameter; for deeper examinations, the system includes a three-meter gastro scope.

Without the trauma of a thick scope entering their system, the horse will receive a thorough physical check in a more comfortable manner. There is 160GB internal storage for capturing plenty of footage (up to 40 hours can be recorded), and the scope itself is easily expandable. As more and more vets begin to use the Magic View, the risks involved with scoping – causing injury and distress to the horse, especially during multiple procedures – will be eliminated, and the process will be much quicker and easier.

More information on the Magic View can be found here, and it will be interesting to see how its arrival on the market redefines the process of videoendoscoping for racehorses in years to come.

About the author:

Kyle McManus is a freelance writer based in the UK.


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